Judi Dench is my favorite M.
Always reblog M sass.
I’m going to miss her so much
Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Djibouti. Those are the countries. It will be drought-resistant species, mostly acacias. And this is a fucking brilliant idea you have no idea oh my Christ
This will create so many jobs and regenerate so many communities and aaaaaahhhhhhh
more info here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Green_Wall
it’s already happening, and already having positive effects. this is wonderful, why have i not heard of this before? i’m so happy!
Oh yes, acacia trees.
They fix nitrogen and improve soil quality.
And, to make things fun, the species they’re using practices “reverse leaf phenology.” The trees go dormant in the rainy season and then grow their leaves again in the dry season. This means you can plant crops under the trees, in that nitrogen-rich soil, and the trees don’t compete for light because they don’t have any leaves on.
And then in the dry season, you harvest the leaves and feed them to your cows.
Crops grown under acacia trees have better yield than those grown without them. Considerably better.
So, this isn’t just about stopping the advancement of the Sahara - it’s also about improving food security for the entire sub-Saharan belt and possibly reclaiming some of the desert as productive land.
Of course, before the “green revolution,” the farmers knew to plant acacia trees - it’s a traditional practice that they were convinced to abandon in favor of “more reliable” artificial fertilizers (that caused soil degradation, soil erosion, etc).
This is why you listen to the people who, you know, have lived with and on land for centuries.
The Great Green Wall, to resist the encroachment of the Sahara. Fascinating.
So my cousin was in a gay pride parade and everything in her outfit and makeup was rainbow but she was wearing red contacts and while marching, a protester behind her yelled “You’re going straight to hell” and she turns around to face him with her fuCKING blood red eyes and she says “well duh, I got a kindom to run” and the protester nearly fucking passed out that is her legacy I want to be like her
no one ever says that Rome needed help from aliens to build their empire
#l laughed for days when i found out that #ancient egyptians used water to reduce friction and move blocks for distances #and that this was literally DEPICTED ON THEIR HIEROGLYPHICS #but ~western archaeologists~ #thought that the pouring of water depicted ~superstitious rituals~ #jfc
Ancient Persian Freezers —- The Yakhchals
Today in the modern world we take freezers, and the frozen results of freezers for granted. But in ancient times, cold drinks, frozen desserts, and chilled tropical cocktails were a luxury unknown to most people. However the idea of artificially freezing goods is nothing new. As far back as 400 BC, the ancient Persians built special freezers called yakhchals. Yakhchals were large buildings used for storage of ice and foodstuffs during the hot Persian summers. Typically they were around 60 feet tall, and had a large subterranean storage space dug out from under it. The Yakhchal itself was made from a special type of mud clay called sarooj which was composed of clay, sand, lime, goat hair, egg whites, and ash mixed in a special proportion which made it extremely resistant to heat transfer. In other words the inside stayed cool, while heat from the outside was prevented from entering the building because of the thick insulated walls. This combined with the subterranean storage ensured that whatever goods were stored in the pit stayed cool, as temperatures below ground level are usually around the 60 to 65 degree Fahrenheit range. However, these designs were not what made a yakhchal a freezer. There was one other brilliant design feature which ensured that the yakhchal would stay frosty all year long.
At the top of the dome was a small hole, or series of small holes called windcatchers. Typically windcatchers were pointed in the direction of the prevailing winds. Due to its conical shape there was always a negative pressure gradient inside the yakhchal. According to Bernoulli’s Law air flow at a high pressure will always move toward areas of low pressure. Thus air from the outside was constantly flowing through the yakhchal. In addition, according to Venturi’s Principal, whenever air flows through a small hole, the smaller the hole, the greater the speed of the flow. The small hole, or series of holes of the yakhchal ensured that air passed into it at great flows. What resulted was a great amount of outside air entering into the yakhchal at high speeds. While the air itself wasn’t cool, the flows at which it was being entrained into the yakhchal created temperatures that were below freezing. Typically the windcatchers were cut in such a way that the incoming jet of air would be directed onto the storage pit.
The ancient Persians primarily used their yakhchals for storing ice and foodstuffs. During the summer, Persian nobles often enjoyed a refreshing frozen treat called faloodeh (pictured above), which is made from thin noodles with syrup made from sugar and rose water, then flavored with lemon, lime, fruits, almond, pistachio, and other flavorings. Due to the Persian’s freezing technology, faloodeh (which is still popular today) goes down in history as one of the first frozen desserts. The practice of building and using yakhchals continued up to the 20th century, when they were eventually replaced with modern freezers and refrigerators.